Joint research and development (R&D) is seen as a major element and panacea for rebuilding trust between countries in the UNFCCC regarding intellectual property and for addressing the difficult issues between emerging economies (read: China) and other developed economies. The issue is especially fraught between the US and China and yet US-China bilateral cooperation on climate mitigation technology is deep and ongoing, especially through the Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC).
The projects under the CERC are run under national consortia collaborating across borders, so that benefits may be shared across all national actors. Funding for research is purely nationally based (each funds own participants and contributes own funds to joint research), so there is no cross-subsidization unless otherwise agreed. The CERC agreement very clearly outlines the intellectual property framework for managing the research produced under the projects and work plan (See http://www.us-china-cerc.org/Intellectual_Property.html). This is controlled by the CERC protocol and the attached IP Annex. (See http://www.us-china-cerc.org/pdfs/protocol.pdf).